The information and materials provided in this book are based on the laws and rulings of:

California Penal Code, Title 1, Title 7, Title 8, Title 13

Federal Criminal Code, Title 18

Federal Pattern Jury Instructions for the 11th Circuit

Florida criminal statutes and Standard Jury Instructions

Illinois 720 ILCS 5, Criminal Code of 1961 rev.

Model Laws from the American Law Institute

New York Penal Code

Texas Penal Code, Title 2, Title 5, Title 7, et seq.

U.S. Supreme Court case law


Laws are different in each of the 50 states and the U.S. Federal courts.

An attorney licensed in the jurisdiction in which your matter is litigated is the only person who can provide you with legal advice and a legal opinion. Consult an attorney in your state for assistance.

This book is not a substitute for legal advice.


The purchase or reading of this book does not create an attorney-client relationship between attorney Ralph Behr and the purchaser or reader.


Library of Congress cataloging –in-Publication Data:

Library of Congress Control Number:

ISBN: 978-1-60402-942-0